members of the first junta (left to right): Emilio Massera (Navy), Jorge Rafael Videla (Army), and Orlando Agosti (Air Force)
going off hobotorium’s post about perón, he did manage to come back, in 1973. after intermittent dictatorships and sham elections which excluded not just perón but anyone professing to be a peronist (including the 1963 election when, acting on orders from the then-exiled perón, 21.2% of all votes cast were blank or invalid), the junta of the revolución argentina (1966-1972) threw up their hands and just let the people have their goddamned peronism if they wanted it so goddamn bad. peronist parties were allowed to participate but perón was excluded by a new requirement for a certain period of residency to run (he was still in exile in Spain). perón, who had begun to use leftist rhetoric to get even more of the population behind him, picked héctor cámpora (a leftist) to run. cámpora won with 49.8%, but was only in office until september of that year, when he resigned following a bunch of maneuvering by perón and the expulsion of most leftists from the justicialist party (better known as the peronist party). perón himself was now able to run. he won with 60%, with his new wife Isabel as his vice-president.
an important thing to note: perón returned to argentina at the ezeiza international airport in buenos aires. from his platform, right-wing peronists (at this point “peronism” had support from all across the political spectrum, from leftists to outright fascists, united only in their belief that Perón could save the country) fired on the leftist peronists that gathered to welcome perón, killing at least 13 and injuring at least 365 others. this point represents the break in the peronist coalition that would define the rest of perón’s (and Isabel’s) time in power. better known as the ezeiza massacre
Isabel Perón as president
perón died in 1974 after less than a year in office, and Isabel (with no political experience to speak of) took over. at this point, things in argentina start to fall apart. as she had no experience, she allowed josé lópez rega, the late perón’s secretary and minister of social welfare, to set most of her domestic policies. unfortunately for the argentines, rega was a fascist and just all-around weirdo (he was into occult shit and was popularly called el brujo, the warlock). he advanced policies of austerity, devaluation of the peso, price hikes, and wage hikes (insufficient to keep up with the prices) led to inflation of around 35% and much of the economy was in shambles.
alongside this, political violence was happening everywhere in the country. the montoneros and the ERP (Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo, People’s Revolutionary Army) were bombing banks, kidnapping industrialists (the montoneros pulled of the most expensive kidnap in history) and killing policemen and members of the armed forces. lópez rega’s Triple A (Alianza Anticomunista Argentina, Argentine Anticommunist Alliance) and other far right groups were just killing whoever the felt like: students, unionists, journalists, academics, anyone they could label a “subversive.” most decent literature will point out that in this period violence committed by the right far exceeded anything done by the left and that by 1976 (coup time), most armed leftist groups were largely defeated thanks to isabel perón’s own “annihilation decrees,” enabling the armed forces to…do exactly what it sounds like those decrees would do.
the coup happened on March 24, 1976 (today marked as the national day of memory for truth and justice), with the perpetrators pledging to save the country from itself and the “scourge of subversion.”
this post was supposed to be about the regime but a post about the lead up to the coup can’t hurt i guess
also if anyone else wants to add or correct something please do! this is mostly going off memory from previous classes